The task D1.1 “Re-confirmation of methodology to define the baseline performance for Kamsarmax bulker and Meraviglia class cruise ship” is associated to D1.1 “Baselining methodology for Kamsarmax and Meraviglia defined” which describes the baselining methodology proposed to be used within project CHEK for both ship designs. The task has been implemented by creating the description of the baselining methodology, the baselining metrics, the selection of baseline design ships and the baseline objectives.

The baseline includes both design and operational aspects to align with existing standard and methodologies (where relevant) and can also be practically applied within the project. To configure the numerical models, various ship design parameters need to be input to the ship simulator. For the New Designs, all the required information will be readily available, as they will be derived in other parts of the project. For the Baseline Designs, this information has been gathered from EEDI Phase 2 compliant vessels, MSC Grandiosa and a 2017 Japanese built Kamsarmax (81K DWT). In this task have been also described the metrics and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) proposed to be used to compare the performance of the Baseline Designs and the New Designs, such as:

  • Total emissions (CO2, CO2e, other emissions)
  • Energy consumption
  • Emissions intensity (EEDI, EEXI, AER, CII, cgDIST)
  • Economic performance ($/tonne, $/passenger)
  • Other waste streams (Food waste, EGCS Effluent, Antifoul biocide)

The metrics and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) proposed to be used to compare the performance of the Baseline Designs and the New Designs will enable the key goal of CHEK Referenced in CHEK proposal, Reference [1], objectives and measures of success (as “GHG emissions”). The specific objectives / measures of success are calculated according to baselining methodology described in the WP.

A methodology for benchmarking the performance of the New designs developed in CHEK, against Baseline designs representative of the current status quo (EEDI Phase 2) has been described.
The methodology proposed is aligned with the other tasks and work undertaken in the project: e.g. the basis for the performance simulation is the same numerical models and tools that are at the core of the project.

The task T1.2 “Gathering historical operational data from Kamsarmax and Meraviglia sister ships” is associated to deliverable D1.2 “Historical operational performance data for both vessel concepts gathered” and presents the historical case vessels and the preliminary measurement data extracted from them. The historical operational data is the basis for evaluating the project CHEK case vessel performance in realistic conditions and the development of the vessel's sustainability. The historical operational data of the two EEDI phase 2 compliant vessels, Meraviglia class cruise ship and Kamsarmax size bulk carrier are provided by MSC and Cargill. This deliverable is a description of available data sets, design documentation and operational descriptions, including initial synthesis of the received measured onboard data. The purpose of this deliverable is to provide the analysis results of the historical performance of the vessels of interest. A good understanding of the case ship operational pattern provides a basis to build a reference baseline of the current fleet. The baseline serves as a reference or a like-for-like comparison of the relative advantages of the new CHEK designs against existing designs in terms of achieved carbon reductions. Furthermore, the raw data and its analysis results can be considered as a database for the project, such as providing input and validation data for the ship’s energy modelling and hydrodynamic development.

The historical performance or operational profile of a ship often comprises a huge amount of data including time series or statistical data of quantities like operational phases/modes time distribution, engine constant rate, engine loading condition, fuel consumption, rudder angles, speed (overground and through water) distribution, water depth, weather data, etc. These data are commonly collected by the shipowner during some periods. In particular, the historical operational data of the two vessels, Meraviglia class cruise ship, and Kamsarmax sized bulk carrier, are provided by MSC and Cargill.
The structure of these deliverables includes separate and preliminary analyses for the two vessels. The operational profile data will be utilized for digital modelling purposes in the CHEK project. The utilization of the data is most relevant for giving an overview of the ship's physical route and the average weather they encounter. Nevertheless, also other parameters, such as understanding of the ship hotel power consumption and the daily, etc. variation gives useful background information for the modelling.

Reception of the case ship historical data is an important milestone in the CHEK project, and we can conclude that the already received data can be utilized as a basis for the project. Nevertheless, a more accurate analysis will reveal the need to include more reference or measurement data to the obtained collection, to describe more accurately the average operational conditions.

The historical operational data evaluation, treatment, and utilization are closely related to the entire digital thread creation, including the creation of the first digital prototypes in the project and the supporting “historical vessel prototypes”, which are supporting the digital prototype generation.

The task T1.3 “Specification of future operational profiles of CHEK Kamsarmax and Meraviglia class cruise” is associated to deliverable D1.3 “Future operational profile of both vessel concepts defined”. This enables the performance of the New Designs to be benchmarked against the Baseline Designs not only under current/historical operating profiles, but under future operational profiles as well. This is achieved by simulating the performance of both New and Baseline designs under these future operating profile(s). Future operating profiles may differ from the historical profiles presented in D1.2 due to various reasons, including regulatory changes, market changes, or due to the new technologies to be installed. For example (and most notably), the addition of the wing sails to the Kamsarmax bulk carrier may significantly change the speed, wind and powering profiles for the new designs compared to the historical profiles.

In addition to the parameters for the operating profile defined in D1.1, such as Trading routes, Operation mode distribution, Cargo quantities, Draught distribution, Speed distribution, Weather data (wind, waves, temperatures), the future operational profile will include the Types of fuels, Applicable future SOLAS Legislation, Equipment to be installed (besides the envisaged CHEK technologies).

For the Cruise Ship, the future operational profile is primarily as per the historical operational profile. For the Kamsarmax, the limited historical data available for the baseline design, together with the diverse range of trading routes has led to the future operating profile being defined from data set that is more reflective of the wider fleet.
The required Future Operational Profile parameters are provided for both Kamsarmax and Meraviglia class ships. This information provides what is required for both the initial design work, and the benchmarking within the project, and is aligned with the work already been done, and reported in D.1.1 and D.1.2. In addition, work has been done to identify how additional Future Operating Profiles can be utilised in the project to further optimise the performance of the design, and the technology interactions. This is required as some profile parameters will be updated later in the project as a result of the outcomes of other work packages. In addition, rather than being a static input to the design process, these profiles can instead be an integrated part of the optimisation studies using the project’s simulation tools, and this has the potential to unlock further incremental improvements in the performance of the new designs.

The task T1.4 “Gathering CHEK technology performance data” is associated to D1.4 “Repository of available data on CHEK technology performance” and provides the overview to the intended use and the structure of the data Repository. It also gives examples of the data needed/ provided by the project partners considering the different calculations/simulations conducted during this project (e.g. power plant, waste heat recovery system, antifouling system, CFD calculations (windwing), ALS system). The main interfaces between CHEK technology partners in the project have been summarized shortly. The interfaces mean mainly variables or constant values received as input for the simulations in WP2. The interfaces can also mean various sub-routines and simulation cooperation between two or several parties. A high level description of the cooperation regarding simulations and optimization has been performed. In the big picture, Deltamarin’s simulations and the WP2 working in general, is one of the central pieces in the CHEK project for collecting, analysing and measuring CHEK project performance.
BARt will provide data on the sails performance.

The Climeon waste heat recovery system’s data is an integral part of Deltamarin’s energy modelling tool, which has been utilized to produce initial results. Further refinement of the energy model’s ORC unit is to be refined based on the assessment of ORC modelling approach and results between Deltamarin and Climeon and utilizing the results of the upcoming D5.4 “Waste heat recovery prototype”. The HASYTEC system is an environmentally friendly technology for the prevention of biofilm formation on wetted surfaces by means of high-frequency ultrasonic waves. It was developed, designed, and built for industrial and commercial use.
Silverstream, essential connections to project CHEK simulations and work, gives the preliminary introduction to the integrations of the air lubrication technology to the CHEK vessels. Wärtsilä is one of the central technology partners in project CHEK and there will be many interfaces to the WP2 simulations and the related work. Wärtsilä will be performing CFD simulations both with and without gate rudder for the case ships.

This deliverable describes the current status of data and interactions available for digital prototyping and provides an outlook to the cooperation and integrations between CHEK technologies.

The task T1.5 “Definition of a “Digital Thread” to pave the way for Future-Proof Vessel Design (FPVD) Platform” is associated to D1.5 ““Digital thread” defined” report where are explained in brief the main components, extent and practical working procedures regarding the digital thread created as a part of the project CHEK. This report provides an overview of the digital thread in the CHEK project. Digital thread is the process or even a “map” that combines the digital models, their input and interrelations, as well as the results for the project key targets. The main function of digital thread is to allow traceability of the various factors and input in the simulations to all participants in the project. This report presents the original plan and example of the digital models that are going to be created in CHEK and how we internally communicate about them and their development.

In practice, the digital models in project CHEK are performed in three main “generations”. The first model generation includes digital prototyping. This stage also includes treating historical operational data from existing vessels. The historical measurement data is utilised to describe partly the CHEK case vessel future operational patterns, and partly for creating a reference of the past operations, against which the new vessels are compared to. Digital prototyping includes rough modelling of the CHEK case vessels and the main function is to reveal the need for all CHEK participants to provide data of their technologies. After digital prototypes, the new vessel optimisation can be started with focus on holistic impact of the various technologies and design improvements. This stage is called “digital masters” and the result is the digital design means optimised vessel concepts. Since CHEK project includes also real-life demonstrations of CHEK technologies, it is still possible to update the digital masters with feedback from these experiments. This stage of digital modelling is called “digital twins”. Each partner in the CHEK project will contribute to the digital modelling.

One of the building blocks of CHEK is that at the same time when developing sustainable vessel designs with a mix of CHEK technologies and design innovations, we systematically develop also a future-proof vessel (FPV) design platform. The FPV design platform involves optimisation layers on top of the existing energy and propulsion simulation tools, which goes beyond simple simulation of the various pre-set configurations of the "technology mix": The FPV design platform should enable creating optimal configurations of the CHEK technology mix related enabled variables.

For orchestrating the entire process, we need a clear “map” and common tools and documentation for the project. A plan has been presented for proceeding during the project from the digital prototype into 2nd generation digital models enhanced with as much real-life measurement data etc. as possible to possible real-life comparisons or digital twin generation of existing ships and the performed technology pilots. This digital thread report presents a plan for the CHEK project digital modelling (simulation and the
necessary optimisation) by answering the following questions:

  • WHAT is involved in the digital models and how the data is connected?
  • WHEN and in which chronological order are the models created for supporting the process?
  • HOW are we communicating about these models and their data as an entire project team to
    ensure success for the project goals?

The digital thread in CHEK project is aiming to create a platform for designing new ships, where the methodologies that were applied in the design of CHEK vessels can be expanded to cover design of majority of other ship types as well. The crucial part of digital thread process is the actual implementation of the process so that all CHEK parties can contribute to the models and result generation at right time and correct level of detail. For this purpose, digital thread is a continuously updated function, reason why the T1.5 implementation will remain open until the end of the project.

This deliverable (D10.1) is part of Work Package (WP) 10 – Dissemination, Communication and Exploitation, and addresses Task 10.1 of the project relating to fine-tuning and regular updates of CHEK’s Dissemination and Exploitation Plan. This Dissemination and Exploitation Plan is expected to serve as a guide for raising awareness of the project results to various target groups, including academia, industry, ship-owners and the general public, engaging relevant stakeholders and maximizing the project’s impact. Exploitation activities of the plan are anticipated to pave the way for successful result exploitation post-project through the engagement of stakeholders such as ship-owners, shipyards, crews, policymakers. CHEK dissemination and exploitation plan will also serve as the basis for the overall dissemination and exploitation activities of the project, ensuring the effective dissemination and industry uptake of CHEK’s results, data and methodology to policy makers, industry, academia and the
general public.

Full text of the report:

The communication and dissemination activities of CHEK project aim to leave a lasting legacy towards the value of the development of a combination of innovative technologies working in symbiosis to be installed on new builds within the next 10 years in order for the maritime sector to achieve the IMO goals for the reduction of GHG emissions from ships and the European Green Deal target for climate neutrality in Europe. Keeping in mind that the average age of a modern maritime vessel today is ~20 years and the average lifespan of a typical vessel is around 30 years, first radically changed new-build vessels need to be deployed within the next 10 years and innovative technologies working in symbiosis to be installed on those new builds have to be developed now, since no single “silver bullet” existing or emerging technology is able to help achieve the IMO and EU goals. CHEK communication plan and strategy will serve as the basis for the overall dissemination and communication activities of the project and ensure that CHEK’s news, updates and results are effectively and efficiently communicated to the relevant targeted project’s audiences successfully fulfilling CHEK’s high-level dissemination and exploitation objectives.

Full text of the report:

The objective of the CHEK project website is to communicate the project progress and latest news on the project, and to disseminate relevant project files such as videos and and to disseminate relevant project files such as promotional images and films, project reports and e-training lessons and films, to the relevant stakeholders.. These range from policy makers, over the maritime industry to academia and the general public. The website is aimed to achieve worldwide visibility and use. The creation of the website is linked to task: T10.3 Implementing communication activities and promoting of a coherent project identity among stakeholders and its project website. The website is an integral part of the CHEK dissemination and exploitation plan (D10.1) and Communication plan (D10.2). It will also feature the CHEK project video (D10.4), once it is completed in month 6 of the project.

Full text of the report:

The CHEK video campaign consists of one animated and narrated explainer video aimed at presenting project CHEK, including its aims, ambitions and approach. The need for a project video was identified at the early planning stages of the project, and was included as one of the early deliverables of work package 10, to ensure that the public, the maritime industry and decision makers would gain early awareness and understanding of what the project is about. Discussions in WP.10 meetings about the approach to producing the video led to the conclusion that it would be in the interest of the project to produce one single and coordinated video representing all consortium members, rather than a series of individual videos. Since the video would be produced at the early stages of the project, little results and photographic material would be available, and it was not considered suitable to use stock-footage material. It was therefore decided to produce an animated video with a narration, in order to allow optimal flexibility in presenting the plans for this project.

Full text of the report:

The communication and dissemination activities of the CHEK project aim to leave a lasting legacy towards the value of the development of a combination of innovative technologies working in symbiosis to be installed on new builds within the next 10 years. This could support the maritime sector to achieve the IMO goals for the reduction of GHG emissions from ships and the European Green Deal target for climate neutrality in Europe. Keeping in mind that the average age of a modern maritime vessel today is ~20 years and the average lifespan of a typical vessel is around 30 years, first radically changed new-build vessels need to be deployed within the next 10 years. Innovative technologies working in symbiosis to be installed on those new builds have to be developed now, since no single “silver bullet” existing or emerging technology is able to help achieve the IMO and EU goals.

Following the description in the dissemination and communication activities of the project, a student competition was held in the years 2021-2022, funded by CHEK’s budget. This student competition aimed to encourage the students all over the world to submit their work on shipping decarbonisation. This raised the awareness of public about the decarbonisation not only the shipping industry, but also decarbonisation themes in the real life. The students submitted their work in the form of a report (a template can be downloaded from CHEK’s website), presenting their greener shipping technologies or innovations, within the objectives or technologies using in the project CHEK (not limited to). The submissions were assessed by the selection panel to choose the winner. The selection process is based on four criteria: scientific merit, presentation, feasibility and originality.

Full text of the report:

The first-generation digital simulation model of the project is called the Digital Prototype. It establishes a framework and a foundation of the prototype model in the early stage of the project and for the following models.
The two project vessels, the Meraviglia class cruise ship and the Kamsarmax size bulk carrier had their digital simulation models built based on historical data available at the time with the help of existing simulation tools. The digital simulation models and the Digital Prototype are evolving entity, which are based on four interconnected building blocks i.e.:

  • Operational profile, including speeds, port stays and impact of the weather.
  • Ship hydrodynamic design, including hull design and general arrangement. Engine room/power plant, including equipment, fuel type and onboard energy saving devices. Outboard energy saving devices, such as wind propulsion and other technologies reducing hydrodynamic resistance.

These basic building blocks were supplemented with adding all the CHEK technologies to the simulation environment using current data available. The digital prototype generation was divided into three development stages: “Simulation Model Calibration”, “Digital Prototype v1.0” and “Digital Prototype v2.0” and the report focuses on the first two of them.

The components of simulation model and the current inputs at this stage were presented. Preliminary KPIs were calculated for the calibrated historical models of the ships as well as the early digital prototypes for the CHEK case vessels. The demonstrated technologies include initial estimates of various engine alternatives, batteries, cold ironing, waste heat recovery, air lubrication, fuel alternatives and preliminary example results of CHEK technology simulations, and their interconnections.
The next step is to supplement and finalize the Digital Prototype with “Digital prototype v2.0” as more data becomes available and continue improving the model to reach the next step, the Digital Master.

The second-generation of the digital model shows promising progress towards the projects goals when more parameters related to individual CHEK technologies are added, the model developed, refined and the interconnections improved. Some CHEK technologies e.g., weather routing, anti-fouling, air lubrication, hydrogen engine and gate rudder are still in development or waiting more accurate data regarding their individual impact as well as their interaction with other technologies e.g., the solid wind wing sails. These are estimated to improve overall results for the next iteration cycle of the model.

The CHEK energy/fuel-saving targets are seen to be getting closer to the project objectives (40% for the bulker, 50% for the cruiser) if the baseline scaling factor (EEDI phase II) and fouling are considered. For the emission reduction target (99% GHG), the results now include well-to-wake emissions for CO2 but not yet CO2e emissions caused by methane, nitrous oxides, or carbon black. The exercise with Net Present Value showed that a lot of the parameters are not in hand to carry out the complete calculation, but early indication was given. The price of energy, materials, and decision-horizon are important factors that can make or break each technology’s outlook depending on their sensitivity.

A clear direction of improvement towards the project objectives was observed when compared to the first-generation model, Digital Prototype. Data gaps in operating profile and in technologies have been identified but no showstoppers were found. Some items, such as emission factors for fuels and the NPV inputs were found to be sensitive to the parameters selected. Other metrics than NPV that would tie together the emissions, technologies, and profitability in a single graph, such as MACC or break-even cost analysis was also proposed. The work continues on solid ground towards to the Digital Twin and the FPV platform with the help of the real-life demonstrations.

The aim of the experiment design for real-vessel demonstration is to ensure that the onboard and in-lab measurements planned in the CHEK project are well organized and provide maximum benefit to all deliverables, especially the ones addressing the digital simulation model Digital Twin. The experiment design is meant to confirm that the shortcomings identified during the Digital Master modelling are remedied. This is achieved by specifying all relevant measurement signals needed, as well as by addressing several practical issues that need to be dealt with before, during and after the measurement period.

The plan provides a general description of the onboard measurement campaign by presenting the purpose and procedure of the measurement activities. The procedure varies from system to system e.g., via data acquisition systems installed in prototypes or manual inspection, transmission on a regular basis to agreed location. Additionally, the access rights and confidentiality of the data is also addressed. The measurements onboard are discussed in more detail for both of the vessels, the cruise ship and the bulker respectively. A list of signals corresponding to the CHEK modifications onboard as well as those needed to complete a Digital Twin model is provided. The demonstration scenarios are also outlined, aimed at gathering data for the widest possible range of operational conditions. The demonstrations in the laboratories that are planned within CHEK framework are also discussed. The intention is to ensure that the demonstrations will mimic real-life use to the maximum extend, while at the same time providing data for Digital Twin simulations.

This gathering of real-world data to complement and correlate results from modelling will majorly happen during Work Package 7 and also conclude later in WP7.

In order to see the advantages of CHEK vessels when applying technologies and alternativefuels, it is necessary to use a comprehensive approach to evaluate the environmental performance of both vessel types on a Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA)basis. The LCA method was used as a tool to assess the environmental impacts ofthe vessels. The purpose of this deliverables is to present the LCA work on the bulk carriers and the cruise vessels, based on the data gathered from digital twin model some data from technologies providers. The results will give the holistic view on the positive impacts of technologies working on synergies and alternative fuels (bio-LNG, and green hydrogen) on the future vessel design.

The Digital Twin represents the third generation and the most comprehensive and accurate digital model for both the cruise ship and bulk carrier. In the final exercise, all inputs for CHEK technologies—gathered through lab experiments, simulations, and real-life testing and demonstrations—were integrated into the ships' propulsion and energy system models. This holistic modelling approach considered all CHEK technologies along with a full set of defined operating profiles, including the impact of weather in different geographical areas and seasons on the vessels' overall performance.

The achieved energy and emissions savings with CHEK technologies and alternative fuels (Hydrogen for the cruise ship and Liquefied Biogas for the bulk carrier) were compared against CHEK targets: energy savings of 40% for the bulker and 50% for the cruise ship, and 99% emissions reduction for both vessels relative to the EEDI Phase II compliant vessel design. The simulations revealed positive interactions between several CHEK technologies, achieving energy and emissions savings beyond the initial targets. An exception was noted for the cruise ship's energy-saving goal, where results were slightly below target due to its already optimal operating profile.

This simulation exercise marks a significant advancement in collaboration among project partners, particularly in terms of sensitive data sharing, integration of different models, and the development of a common understanding of the nuances related to each partner’s technology. Our achievements demonstrate substantial progress towards more sustainable and efficient maritime operations and pave the way for a generalized modelling approach applicable to other ship types and sizes, as described in the Future Ship Design Platform report.

Hydrogen has long been envisioned as the energy carrier to replace carbon-based fuels, but without significant breakthroughs its application in internal combustion engines has stayed at research level. A boom in research has surged within the recent years as the world desperately searches low-emission alternatives to traditional maritime fuels. This work defines a framework for a prototype hydrogen engine that will be built in later phases of the project. Literature and research papers were examined to discover established hydrogen solutions for internal combustion engines. The gained knowledge is used as a framework on how to retrofit an existing engine to allow the use of hydrogen as the main fuel instead of natural gas. In engine parts where retrofitting is not possible, new solutions are presented. Both the advantages and disadvantages of hydrogen are considered. Thus, the hydrogen engine specifications and auxiliary system requirements were established. As the first step in retrofitting an existing engine to be hydrogen driven, a framework of engine requirements was achieved. Following this work, the hydrogen engine components will be further defined to develop and test a working hydrogen engine prototype.

Wind is free fuel and ships can harness it via WASP technologies to reduce fuel and GHG emission. WindWing in CHEK project is an innovative wing sail system that can be mounted on the ship’s deck to produce thrust from the wind with an ability to be lowered onto the deck if necessary for port operations or severe weather conditions. The purpose of this work is to optimize the wing system aerodynamically to provide the maximum thrust reliably and design it structurally and mechanically to be suitable for ships operations and the environment they operate in which will form a specification of the wing sail design. To look at the aerodynamic optimisation, a study of 2-D sections varying number & size of elements were performed and then an extensive analysis was undertaken on 3-D geometries varying 14 parameters for the maximum lift while providing reliable performance for dynamic wind conditions. The design process covered the choice of materials & construction for strength and weight, mechanical arrangements for wings movement range, tilting operation and the wing control strategy. The structural assessment was performed using aerodynamic, inertial, green water and icing load criteria from DNV. The stability of the ship with the wings were assessed for the safety aspects. The results from performance perspective, ShipSEAT, a state-of-art tool used for routing and VPP, predicted realistic average fuel savings of approximately 12% and 20% from single and two wings respectively on the CHEK bulker, Pyxis Ocean, for the proposed China centric route set by Cargill. With regards to the design & safety, the design imposes no restrictions in port operations and satisfy DNV’s design criteria in various aspects of loading conditions including extreme weather conditions. The intact stability assessment of the vessel with wings and additional structural weight satisfied all the criteria with little changes from the original vessel. Upon the completion of the wing installation, the performance and structural monitoring will be carried out continuously to validate the expected saving from this work package as well as to compare and review the design load against the actual load experienced during operation.

In WP3, the deliverable D3.3 report describes the development of hydrogen engine for CHEK Cruise concept. The report investigates spark-ignited four stroke medium bore single cylinder gas engine of W31SGSCE and discusses the selected components and control systems for hydrogen fuel combustion. The components include the fuel supply system, cylinder head unit, turbocharger, exhaust aftertreatment catalyst, and control system.

The first prototype hydrogen engine was tested at Wärtsilä laboratory as described in deliverable D3.6 report. Two sets of test campaigns have been performed focusing on power output, emission levels and engine efficiency. In the first set of test campaign, pure hydrogen fuel was used on “W31SG engine as it is”, without any hardware modifications. The target is to gain robust understanding of standard engine performance. In the second set of test campaign, the pre-combustion chamber was replaced with poppet valve concept. This was due to better injection timing control compared to conventional low-pressure gas engine main gas admission valve technology. The tests revealed challenges such as backfire, pre-ignition, and knocking. The report concludes that further design modifications are needed for the engine to run on pure hydrogen fuel. Wärtsilä plans to continue testing and aims to have a pure hydrogen engine available by 2025.

This work discusses the most relevant rules and regulations to date that must be regarded when developing a hydrogen fuel system intended for an internal combustion engine. A literature review was done based on several standards, rules, regulations and scientific journal papers including e.g. IGC and IGF codes and rules of hydrogen fuel cell installations.

An essential part of the work was to recognise the aspects of designing a safe marine hydrogen fuel system. This included evaluation of storage tank, pressure regulation system, piping system and safety aspects including gas detectors and ventilation aspects. The work continues and a prototype hydrogen fuel system will be designed during the CHEK project.

A comprehensive guide on building a land-based hydrogen fuel system is presented. The guide consists of 31 different tasks to be undertaken before safe commissioning of the fuel system. In addition to providing hydrogen for internal combustion engines, the system is designed to flexibly provide fuel for Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells.

The dimensioning of the fuel system is thoroughly considered. Due to the different locations for the hydrogen engine and the fuel system, items that require attention for integrating them together are discussed. The hydrogen engine prototype has been tested and its development continues.

BA Technologies have developed the design of a 37.5 m span WindWing to be fitted to the Kamsarmax bulker Pyxis Ocean as part of project CHEK. This work package developed the concept design further to be adopted for the manufacture and provide practical solutions for various operating conditions and the shapes of the wing and deliver the final design drawings for the manufacturer, Yara Marine. The development of the WindWing underwent design iterations from the design specifications to the detailed design with the highest level of confidence to not only become manufacturable but also perform as intended and can withstand in extreme conditions. The outcome of this detail design process is the final drawings which include the drawings of the whole system, the main dimensions and position and number of the wings on the Pyxis Ocean as well as wing configurations both folded and unfolded for various at sea and port operations defined fully with high level descriptions. Yara Marine reviewed the final design and ratified as “manufacturable” and economically viable. This concludes that BAR technologies’ design iterations successfully transformed the concept into a product. BAR will be working closely with Yara throughout the manufacturing period to support Yara and fabricators for smooth building process.

The parts of the WindWing (main spar, trim mechanism, leading and trailing element, nose and tail fairing, hydraulics, electronics, control software, tilting mechanism etc) are all manufactured and has successfully been installed on the bulker by the selected shipyard.

Prior delivery a significant time was spent on system integration test (testing of wings on land after final assembly). Main working principle was to conduct testing as early as possible in the process to avoid need of corrections at a late stage where corrective actions will be more expensive. Once testing completed, the wings were loaded on barges facilitating the transport from assembly site to shipyard.

CHEK project is about decarbonizing long distance shipping. This is achieved by considering and optimizing simultaneously the ship operations, ship parameters and fundamental design and the various technologies and fuel alternatives. The synthesis is achieved by creating digital models of the ships to be optimized in various generations and validation using real data as comparison. As a starting point for the development of operational technologies, initial numerical models of the CHEK concept vessels Meraviglia and Kamsarmax have been developed and verified against measured operating data. Project CHEK technologies evaluated using a linear model are confirming the validity of the Digital Thread. The digital thread that will be used by other deliveries of the project is confirmed to be aligned with historical data and the baseline used as reference. For cruise ship a specific update of the digital thread will be implemented using the simulation of the installation of hydrogen fuelled engines. Project CHEK technologies evaluated using a linear model are confirming that specific focus on itinerary optimisation and operational efficiency must be taken in consideration to grant way forward to decarbonisation, as suggested by IMO. The mathematical approach to such a wide and unexplored conglomeration of data will result in a system that will be able to balance all the various aspect of an Itinerary planning process and will produce on optimized itinerary that, besides being balanced, will be reducing CO2 emission.

The main goal of this innovation is to develop a system that will support the automated route optimization for both conventional motor and sail-assisted vessels, integrating the route optimization activities into fleet management processes. The model for sail-assisted vessel considers the effect of sails during voyage optimization, so that route will avoid head-on winds and deviate towards favorable winds. Such system has been implemented and integrated into existing infrastructure of Wärtsilä’s fleet management solutions. The system covers full cycle of voyage planning and data collection required for such planning, and can be interfaced to the ship’s navigational system. Due to the lack of sea trials data suitable for model calibration, the optimization parameters were taken from previous results of project CHEK. To validate and enhance the data, additional real-time model has been developed. This model can be used not only to validate optimization results, but also for crew training and for live demonstrations in navigational simulators. This report also provides basic information about route optimization algorithms and modelling, as well as describes protentional use of such models in training and demonstrational purposes. It also provides examples how the developed tool can be used to plan and optimize voyages for cruise ship and bulker. The implemented system allows further steps towards integration and sea trials.

D4.5. Cruise itinerary optimisation tool proof of concept integrated into cruise navigation system through the route planning system

Given the CHEK technologies applied to the baseline of CHEK Project, planning is one of the main constraints related to emissions reduction. A good Itinerary, to be considered as such, must balance nautical, engineering, and Commercial / Business factors.

A complete system that gathers all these variables together – and values them, compares them, and gives as an outcome a result that identifies and weights the proficiency - doesn’t exist as a single entity. This is causing operational issues to the ship Owners / ship Operators, and the risk of creating itineraries viable from the commercial point of view but not fully compliant with emissions targets and related operational indexes is realistic and must be mitigated.

The objective is to mitigate this risk, by creating and integrating with the systems onboard a tool based on an algorithm that will be able to evaluate a mathematical ship model and to proceed with a process to calculate the optimal itinerary from a holistic point of view.

The first part of this work focuses on the integration of the tool with the route planning existing onboard the vessel. The proof of concept is provided through practical case. The report proves the integration of the cruise itinerary optimisation tool into the cruise navigation system through the route planning system. While the first step was the tool proof of concept, the functionality of the tool itself is addressed in deliverable D4.6.

D4.6 Cruise Itinerary Optimisation tool

A pilot of Cruise Itinerary Optimisation Tool has been defined, developed, and tested. Main aspects of the pilot include: one Meraviglia class vessel, 17 ports in West Mediterranean area, and operation in both summer and winter seasons.

The tool is capable of aggregating data from different sources and different origins, ensuring safety of navigation (ref. D4.5) and considering fuel efficiency, revenue, and other itinerary related aspects to ensure the most efficient itinerary per ship.

The solution consists of four main components: the Main Database, the Main Logic Module (Backend); the User Interface and the Solver. The system runs on four different operating modes and provides as output one optimal solution or a set of efficient solutions.

The system includes all the main elements to be taken into consideration for the cruise itinerary planning, definition and evaluation and is focused on the minimisation of the environmental impact. Attractiveness and Profitability are also included for the business sustainability of the obtained results from the tool. The system can be used as Decision Support System for the Cruise Itinerary Planning Process thanks to the possibilities to be used for planning, simulating, evaluating, and performing several scenario analyses.

Liquid natural gas (LNG) has during the past couple of decades gained attraction as a marine fuel in response to regulations on harmful emissions such as NOx, SOx and particulate matters. Thanks to the low emission levels without aftertreatment, solutions using LNG are also economically attractive. Although LNG still is a fossil fuel, it brings the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by up to 25% compared to fuel oil. From decarbonisation perspective, one interesting aspect of installing an LNG-capable solution is the capability of running also on renewable fuels such as liquid biomethane, and liquid methane derived from green hydrogen without further modification. However, with the introduction of alternative fuel sources for an LNG-capable solution comes the question whether the fuel can be switched without any implications. Essentially the fuel can be switched, they all have the methane molecule in common independent of origin. Attention needs to be paid to the other possible components affecting the gas quality, i.e. the methane number, and its impact on the engine operability and efficiency. The essential challenges with varying gas quality in lean burn gas engines is the impact on the combustion behaviour. Controls adapting to the gas quality are needed in order to maintain maximum efficiency, and here both methods utilizing dedicated hardware as well as methods relying on monitoring of the combustion process are reviewed. The report provides background knowledge on the combustion behaviour and the control methods needed to manage the operation of high performing lean burn gas engines. Upcoming work within the CHEK project will focus on the introduction of selected technology, engine testing and test results.

About half of the fuel energy in marine combustion engines is dissipated as waste heat both in the engine´s cooling water and in the exhaust gases. The available waste heat in the future-proof CHEK vessels will vary with engine design, waste heat recovery circuit design and operational profile of the vessels. The purpose of this report is to investigate the feasibility of implementing a waste heat recovery solution based upon Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technology on the future-proof CHEK vessels to convert their available waste heat from the engines into electricity distributed to the vessel grid and thereby to save energy. This was done by evaluating the performance of a Digital ORC model of a first version ORC prototype with a max power output of 150kW under operating points identified within the project in the digital model of the respective CHEK-vessel. The operational profile was based upon initial real time data from the two vessels. The ORC-product is in the digital model integrated to utilize waste heat in a waste heat circuit collecting heat from the engines HT-water with a boost by heat from surplus steam when this is available. The initial results show that implementing the Digital ORC model of the first version ORC prototype as the waste heat recovery solution in the digital model of the CHECK vessels will provide fuel energy savings between 0,8 and 1%, i.e. electrical energy savings between 1.6 and 2%. That is an approximate 4% contribution to the CHEK project goal of achieving at least 50% energy savings on board. Our conclusion is thus, based upon the current initial operational data, the implementation of the first version ORC product on the CHEK vessels is technically feasible and will contribute to the recovery of otherwise wasted heat energy. There are however several ways of improving the net power output and energy savings from an ORC WHR-system. For example, an improved design of the WHR-circuit and an optimization of the thermal absorption from other waste heat consumers. Cost of integration and total energy savings can also be improved if a second version ORC prototype with a different design and a higher max power output is considered for the CHEK vessels. This is further analysed during in the following deliverables in the CHEK project.

Engine operation and industrial processes produce large amounts of waste heat energy, which can be costly in certain environments. Waste-Heat Recovery technology in CHEK project converts low-temperature waste heat into clean, carbon-free electricity that can be used on site, distributed or sold back to the grid. The purpose of this work is to document the tests of relevant operating points, such as available thermal heat, temperatures and flows of hot and cold water, for a Waste-Heat Recovery system in a full- scale lab prototype of such a system. These tests were made to ensure the veracity of the Digital Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) model of the Waste-Heat Recovery system of the CHECK vessels for the identified operating points and to understand the implications of the operating points on component degradation and performance. The tests were aiming to measure the performance at the fixed flow conditions of the Digital ORC model, i.e. at hot side flow and cold side flow. The Digital ORC model provides a good agreement with real product performance. Further, the first version of ORC prototype is suitable for marine historical operational conditions. However, based on experience heat exchanger fouling and rotating components wear have been noticed in real-life tests. These component degradations can be minimized by regular maintenance and an avoidance of unnecessary starts and stops of the ORC prototype. When the operational conditions for the future-proof vessel are set, continued testing, development and optimization of the Organic Rankine Cycle prototype will be planned. Continued testing is planned to investigate system performance where the temperature is fixed and the hot and cold side flow varies. Further development and testing will be documented and reported in the Waste-Heat Recovery testing work.

Just like in land-based applications, the introduction of alternative propulsion methods such as wind assistance increases the fluctuations in the propulsion demand from the propeller shaft line. This calls for a flexible power plant, which is capable of optimal operation in an increasingly complex operating environment. In the CHEK project, this challenge is addressed through hybridization and a scalable power plant. To enable further onboard energy savings, also shore power is enabled. A technology review of the current and future energy storage and shore connection systems for marine applications is presented. The technologies are evaluated in terms of efficiency, functionalities, and technological readiness. The subsequent parts are related to the specific applications considered in the project, namely the Meraviglia class ship cruise vessel and the Kamsarmax-size bulker. For each vessel, the operating profile resulting has been used as reference for determining the power requirement in each operating phase, with a focus on the expected power requirements in all phases of port operations, including the power transients when the shore connection is coupled and uncoupled, the average hotel power on board and the power transients related to the equipment in use during loading and unloading. The main result of the task has been a preliminary study of the optimal match between the operating profile and the available technology with their related functionalities. The analysis of the operating profile of Meraviglia class ship and the review of the available technology shows that the most promising short-term solution to achieve zero emission operations in port would be to use an onboard BESS in combination with a Shore Connection supplying carbon-free electric energy. In upcoming work, more emphasis will be put on the identification of the optimal power plant, taking into account the expected changes in operating points due to the introduction of energy saving devices.

D6.1 (Drag Reduction Technology Specification) introduces the design and placement of Silverstream Technologies’ patented air release units (ARUs). The deliverable also provides initial specification of piping, valves, electrical supply, distribution boards, machinery arrangement, ventilation, as well as the control and automation system. Additionally, an initial estimate of system performance and expected savings is presented, while the planned R&D activities, to be carried in support of the CHEK Project, are described. The recommended R&D solution offers improved space savings, CAPEX and OPEX, and suits the spirit of the CHEK Project in terms of being research led.

In D6.2 (Air Lubrication Concept and Installation Preliminary Design), Silverstream Technologies builds on D6.1 to provide indicative space, power and service demands associated with the installation of the ALS. An R&D solution is presented for the Kamsarmax Bulker in the form of an alternative compressor-to-ARU layout alongside the traditional layout. The traditional layout is also presented for the Meraviglia Cruise Ship. Furthermore, details are provided on the number and position of the ARUs, the impact of the revised design of the ARUs in respect to integration within the Kamsarmax hull form (operating at low speeds), indicative pipe routing, HVAC modifications, electrical connectivity, and preliminary control system design (including cybersecurity and interface information). Finally, the deliverable outlines the results of experimental testing performed as part of the CHEK Project to confirm the ALS’s drag reduction capabilities at low(er) speeds as applicable to the Kamsarmax Bulker.

For decades, early performance evaluation of vessels, propulsion devices, and rudders in the marine industry has been based on model-scale tests in towing tanks. In recent years, computing power and software have developed to the point where performance evaluations based on computer flow simulations are a good alternative.
Three distinctive tests are executed for typical model-scale vessel-powering experiments: Bare-hull resistance runs, propeller open-water performance runs and vessel-self-propulsion runs. For the CFD simulations, this approach can be followed, although some subtle differences in the approach can also be implemented. For this purpose, a numerical calculation method for the determination of the hydrodynamic performance of a vessel is described. The so-called In Silico method is based on viscous flow simulations, which can provide proper estimations of required power to operate a vessel under certain conditions. The flow simulations are based on full-scale hull dimensions, which is a fundamental difference from model-scale testing, since the model-scale tests require semi-empirical extrapolation methods to get full-scale predictions.

In the report D6.3 the concept of the Gate-Rudder was discussed in more detail, also addressing the vessel operating conditions which were to be considered in the numerical flow simulations. Given the scope of conditions, with both straight sailing conditions and vessel manoeuvring conditions, a choice for a consistent numerical approach was made. The detailed description of the applied numerical method, with motivation for the made choices was given and with discussing the required post-processing steps to turn the data from the numerical results into a proper data set of results. CFD flow-simulations are used to investigate effects of the use of a gate rudder setup for both case vessel types. Various operating conditions are considered for the performance evaluation and results are fed in the CHEK modelling.

Implementation of Wind-Assisted-Ship-Propulsion (WASP) devices and hull roughness are possible within the method. Trends from this analysis can be used to make a first estimate of the impact of energy saving devices for a range of vessel speeds and different propeller loading conditions.

In addition to the other key technologies gate rudder, air lubrication and ultrasound antifouling, optimising and creating alternative hull forms from existing hull forms offers an option to reduce existing propulsion power requirements. This contributes to the increase in the overall efficiency of the case vessels and thereby reduces GHG emission.

Reference hull forms were recreated in 3D software using available information of the case vessels. To prove that the existing propulsion power requirements can be reduced by optimisation alone, alternative hull forms were created. State-of-the-art RANSE code methods were used to calculate calm water resistance and corrections for added resistance in waves were also applied. Models were created to simulate interactions with other CHEK technologies, wind sails, air lubrication, and anti-fouling.

By modifications of the hull form the results show that an improvement of 2,2% to 5% for the bulk carrier and 0,5% to 1,2% for the cruise ship can be achieved. Rigid sails were also tested and found to provide a 9% to 14 % improvement. Models were created and first estimates were made for the other CHEK technologies.
The work will continue as an integral part of Digital Master development in order to verify if further improvements are possible with other CHEK technologies, such as gate rudder. It should be noted that weather routing to find better winds would increase the savings due to sails optimistically. This is not included in the present calculations. According to initial estimates, the importance of fouling seems to be quite high.

The objective of this deliverable D6.5 was the creation of a conception and manual for the installation of an ultrasound antifouling system for hull surfaces and niche areas based on the construction plans of the two selected demonstration vessels. For this purpose, these installation concepts for the application of an ultrasound antifouling system were designed and subsequently the installation plans were created and provided to the involved consortium partners. The deliverable provided an introduction to biofouling, how environmental conditions affect the rate and the overall impact it has on ships operational efficiency. It includes a brief literature review, followed by a description of a simulation run that describes the wave propagation in structural steel. Here, the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) modelling approach was used and simulations were run using ANSYS Mechanical 2022 R1 in a Coupled Field Harmonic analysis. The modelling results provided information on the minimum power required to keep the sonicated area free of biofilm and allowed for further optimisation of positioning and required numbers of ultrasound transducers for the hull application. In addition to the technical drafts for an ultrasound antifouling system, suitable coating types for non-biocide antifouling paints were also investigated to determine the best possible fit with the ultrasonic antifouling.

The deliverable then illustrated a conceptional antifouling method using ultrasound. Detailed technical specifications of the HASYTEC ultrasound antifouling system were given and the installation concepts for the niche areas and the hull application were provided, as well as technical drawings, adapted to the two case vessels chosen for the Bulker case vessel and the Cruise Ship case vessel. Main task within the work package WP6 and the deliverable work scope was to determine the optimal and best possible transducer placement and ultrasound transmission to be able to achieve the most effective results. Under this aspect, specifications on transducer placement and installation were outlined, which will have to be proved during the trial voyages conducted in WP7. Established results will enable HASYTEC to generate a matrix that can be provided for third party (e.g. naval architect or shipyard) calculation and commissioning process. Trial voyage results, adjustments and improvements of the prototypes and generated matrix will later feed into the Digital Twin step in simulation model generation and finally into the Future-Proof Vessel Design platform, enabling a general and overarching review of the effects achieved with HASYTEC ultrasound antifouling systems as an environmentally friendly and advanced technology. With this deliverable HASYTEC provided guidance on how the ultrasound system can improve the hydrodynamic performance of vessels. Biofouling increases in particular the hull roughness of the vessel and thus also the fuel consumption. The aim of the CHEK project is to decarbonise long-distance shipping using technologies from the consortium. The prevention of biofilm and deposits with ultrasound contributes to this goal. Schematic and technical drawings were provided for the two case vessels. They include details on the HASYTEC antifouling system installation so that optimal sound transmission could be achieved and biofouling prevented. Good and bad practices as well as a full description of the hardware and software specification were described. The installation concept will be used as a framework for future installations. The preparation of this document was done in conjunction of D6.7 for the prototype construction. Results will be examined in real life test in WP7 during a 7-month demo voyage period and final outcome will contribute to the evaluation of the whole project.

The CHEKproject has explored the novel Gate-Rudder™ concept, involving two rudderblades positioned alongside the propeller, through comprehensive full-scaleComputational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. This analysis has primarilyfocused on the Bulker vessel, evaluating the Gate-Rudder's performance insynergy with Wind-Assisted-Ship Propulsion (WASP) technologies. The findingsreveal that the Gate-Rudder's benefits vary significantly with operatingconditions, offering modest advantages in calm, straight sailing but increasingsubstantially under vessel drift and varied steering angles due to enhancedsway force and yaw moment generation.

The projectextended its analysis to both single-screw and twin-screw configurations, wheretwin-screw setups incorporate four Gate-Rudder blades, enabling thrustvectoring to manage a full 360˚ sector, enhancing maneuverability. This featureis particularly beneficial in low-speed "crabbing" operations andduring critical maneuvers like crash-stopping, where the Gate-Rudderscontribute to negative thrust, improving stopping performance.

Forsingle-screw vessels, the Gate-Rudder equipped with a Controllable PitchPropeller (CPP) demonstrates comparable performance to conventional rudders instraight sailing but offers reduced drag penalties and better handling underside forces. The twin-screw variant, while facing challenges from unexpectedpropeller-hull interactions leading to increased hull resistance, showspromising results in terms of rudder load balancing and overall sway forcemanagement, suggesting a potential for non-symmetrical blade designs forenhanced efficiency.

Theinteraction with WASP indicates that the Gate-Rudder maintains steadysway-force production even with reduced propeller load, allowing for moreefficient operation with lower rudder angles and thus reducing overall drag.The twin-screw crabbing operation further highlights the design's versatility,enabling fine-tuned control of surge and yaw forces, advantageous duringberthing operations, particularly in windy conditions.

Overall,the project underscores the Gate-Rudder's advanced capabilities in enhancingmaneuverability and efficiency, especially when integrated with otherpropulsion aids like WASP. Continued research is recommended to optimize designelements such as blade asymmetry and to evaluate performance across a broaderrange of operational conditions to fully capitalize on this innovativeconcept's potential benefits.

The objective of the deliverable D6.7 was the development and production of ultrasound prototypes for the hull and niche areas, which will be tested in real life on the demonstration case vessels in WP7. The report provided an overview of the development of the hardware and software for the prototype systems. The simulations and laboratory tests have shown that a higher ultrasonic power is required for good area coverage and ultrasound output power. To achieve this performance requirement, both the hardware and the software were adapted. For the hardware, this was achieved by adjusting the supply power as well as by newly developed ultrasonic transducers. Work on the technical configuration involved the adaptation of the systems to changing environmental conditions present in vessels, upgraded internal and external system communication and software updates. All methods required several design and prototyping iteration loops to achieve the desired results.
Following the development process, the prototypes for transducers and control units were manufactured at HASYTEC´s own facilities. Quality of the production was tested and proven with Factory Acceptance Tests (FAT) for hardware and software , which evaluated the equipment during and after the assembling of the prototypes. The FAT verified that the prototypes were built and will operate in accordance with the design specifications.

The main task of D6.7 was the actual prototype development, manufacturing and testing. The prototypes proved to be working following all required measures based on the factory acceptance tests, and were ready to be installed on the two selected demonstration vessels. Prototypes for the WP7 installation were developed and produced for niche areas and hull test patches. For the niche areas, in particular the software was adapted to generate the best possible ultrasound power and to keep them free of biofilm and other deposits. In addition to the software, hardware adaptations were also made for the Intelligent Hull Protection prototype (IHP). New functions for communication with the ultrasonic transducers were enabled so that important factors such as temperature and position can be monitored. Newly developed ultrasonic sensors have improved ultrasonic performance and are expected to keep a potential test area of ~40m² free of biofilm as shown in D6.5 Ultrasound antifouling concept and installation design. Following the development, FATs were performed on the hardware and software. These hardware tests ensured that a continuous power supply is available for the application to be tested. The future operational data are recorded by data loggers for later evaluation, and unexpected errors can be detected or the data for WP2 can be included in the creation of a digital twin.

Silverstream Technologies’ final deliverable, D6.8 (Air Lubrication Final Design) provides the customer(s), i.e. ship owner / operator, with a considered business case outlining the technical and economic viability of ALS for the chosen candidate vessels. The deliverable focusses on three key areas: the design, the operation, and the installation of ALS.

The first part outlines the design and configuration of the system such that it has minimal impact on arrangement of the vessel. The second part defines the system performance considering the most likely operational profile of the vessel, while the third and final part ensures the design of the system is feasible such that it could be installed within an agreed timeframe by a competent shipyard. The deliverable brings together an indicative project schedule for realisation, development, and installation of ALS for both ships with further details on ARU arrangement and structural integration, compressor functionality, selection and positioning (based on ship visit of a Meraviglia Cruise Ship), outline of piping network and valve specification, diagrams of the electrical system, and discussion of the control and monitoring system (automation).

Furthermore, the installation and commissioning activities involved in ALS are presented with a system cost analysis and risk register, while the performance estimate is referenced together with insight into Silverstream’s performance verification protocols. Finally, an overview of Silverstream efforts in R&D dedicated to the CHEK Project including review of the (novel) compressor arrangement, overview of the performance effects of low-speed ship operation through experimental work, and insight into an investigation of the effect air lubrication can have on cavitation and underwater radiated noise (URN) is presented in the third part.

In summary, the deliverable provides the intended customer(s) with enough information to make an informed decision prior to committing to formal discussion with Silverstream Technologies. In addition, the customer(s) will be able to assess the benefits of amending future vessel designs to incorporate air lubrication to increase overall vessel efficiency.

The report extensively discusses the implementation, installation, and commissioning of ultrasonic antifouling systems on ships, focusing particularly on hull protection. Through the trial voyages on two case vessels as part of work package 7 (WP7), the HASYTEC ultrasonic antifouling prototypes were evaluated, highlighting the challenges of this labor-intensive and cost-critical application. The findings from these evaluations are intended to serve as the initial basis for a matrix designed for third-party use, such as naval architects and shipyards, to facilitate calculation and commissioning processes.

Key aspects covered include the detailed process of conceptualizing, designing, and deploying ultrasonic-based antifouling systems. The importance of correct installation is stressed, with specific attention to work planning, preparation, and integration with existing hull structures. The report incorporates constructional drawings and organizational tools like the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and the Critical Path Method (CPM) to ensure efficient resource allocation and optimal scheduling for ultrasound integration.

Moreover, the report elaborates on creating a comprehensive matrix or manual that could aid shipowners and operators in assessing the cost-effectiveness and performance benefits of these systems, considering factors like vessel size and other constructional parameters. The deliverable D6.9 outlines the procedure for manual installation of ultrasound antifouling systems, focusing on the optimal placement of transducers to maximize effectiveness.

In conclusion, the implementation of ultrasound antifouling systems represents a significant enhancement in ship maintenance practices, providing a sustainable and environmentally friendly alternative to traditional methods. The report underscores the potential of these systems to improve ship efficiency and reduce operating costs while minimizing environmental impacts.

Classification society approval is a requirement for modifications or new installations onboard ship that impact on safety or environmental performance of the ship (as defined by class rules and IMO regulations). Hence, having relevant plans approved by each ship’s class society is an important milestone towards installation of the CHEK technologies onboard; as it validates that the relevant designs are in compliance with the rules and regulations. This report details the scope of the approvals achieved for each of the technologies to be installed onboard the bulker and cruise ships.

This report provides details of all relevant existing and future regulations; and impact on ship design, CHEK technologies and ship operation. These are true for the date of this report and future predictions are based on what is known at the time of writing this report. Overall, some conclusive remarks are made for some of the CHEK technologies:

Operational efficiency and Itinerary optimisation
The Digital Thread, together with the capability to deliver a baseline and a tool to evaluate every single technology part of project CHEK, will work as optimised model, such as a Digital Twin, in order to support operators defining the best operational profile according to changed external condition and onboard operations. Simulation tool, here defined as Digital Thread, will react according to changed operational profile or machinery conditions, generating new conditional status of the ship.
In addition, WP4 will define the analysis, study and implementation of itinerary optimisation tools. The development of these operational tools will support ships and operators to maintain under control actual Carbon Intensity Indicator (CII) and in planning phase to achieve itinerary compliance with CII and sustainability from the business point of view.

Air lubrication system
In the context of Chapter 4 of MARPOL Annex VI (EEDI, EEXI and operational carbon intensity reduction) and the EU ETS, Silverstream technology offers a means of improving the energy efficiency of a ship. Even when used on a hydrogen power cruise ship, it should reduce the total quantity of hydrogen consumed which would be beneficial as ships will be competing with other sectors for access to hydrogen molecules. However, to be a valid addition to any design, the energy required to run the technology would need to be less than the energy the system saved when in operation. The direction of regulatory requirements helps strengthen the case for including energy efficiency technologies like this. There is no requirements in the current regulations that would preclude or restrict the use of this technology. Wing sails
Similar to air lubrication, they are a means of improving efficiency so are helpful under the expected regulatory regime. The visibility is a legitimate issue, particularly in the context of conventional bulk carrier designs. An additional consideration could be stability requirements associated with having sails on top of main deck. This may mean that wing sail use means a radical rethink of bulk carrier ship design and cargo operations. A radical rethink of design would result in the need to re-evaluate assumptions which underpin the designs of conventionally designed bulk carriers.

By 2050, it is also expected that there may be pressure on industries to reduce the lifecycle impacts of their products. Therefore, materials used for the wing sails may be made out of recyclable materials which needs to consider this at the design stage.

Hydrogen as fuel
For hydrogen as fuel, the main consideration is the location of the tanks onboard (above deck) and the routing of piping to consumers. In term of regulations, currently, the AD&A process would apply however a risk-based certification in accordance with the IGF Code would most probably apply by 2050. Needless to say, bunkering is an issue as there are no guarantees that ports will be able to store and deliver large volumes of hydrogen therefore the cruise ship may need to be designed to accommodate offshore bunkering from a hydrogen FPSO.

D8.2 is a review of the operational profile and existing infrastructure for both CHEK ships’ current and future operational profiles and ports of calls. Current port infrastructure has been reviewed in the following fields, and gaps are identified:
Air draught: The research identified that there are only a few ports with air draught restrictions, and these must be taking into consideration during the design process.
Onshore power supply / Cold ironing: The onshore power source is still in the developmental phase for a number of ports with a few exceptions over some ports providing such service to ships that are berthed during their operation. However, there are no ports that accommodate cold ironing for the cruise ship.
Bunkering: LNG & H2 bunkering facilities are only available in few ports. Some ports hold the infrastructure to facilitate LNG bunkering and some has taken initiatives to provide LNG bunkering in the coming years.
H2 as a fuel consideration is still in the early days and none of the ports has any bunkering infrastructure in place, however a few ports have taken earlier initiatives to accommodate such facility and have plans for H2 bunkering infrastructure in the years to come.
Port regulatory infrastructure: There are a number of incentive programs initiated by multiple ports on major shipping routes to collaborate and create benefits for ships have green credential. Loading side: With wing sails installed, the bulk carrier design might find difficulty with the loading side requirements of the port infrastructure (although this only is a problem for the retrofitted ship and should not present a problem for the newbuild design). The research identifies that all ports facilitate the possibility of berthing and loading cargo on both port and starboard sides of the ship.

D8.4 is a review of current shipping business models that are applied across the dry bulk, liquid bulk, container and cruise sectors. Building on this review, an evaluation of current GHG reduction technology implementation strategies and their related commercial challenges is provided.
As part of the business model review, the following key technology investment and implementation barriers were identified:
• Shipping business models follow a traditional approach,
• Timescales of investment in GHG reduction technologies (balancing of step-changes with large-scale investments),
• Split incentives between charterers and shipowners,
• Cross-industry investment and implementation coordination,
• Environmental risks are becoming increasingly critical, and
• Regulatory risks creating regional hierarchy of regulations.
The industry is currently applying a range of business model strategies to combat these challenges:
• Capital investment in GHG reducing technologies,
• Technology performance guarantees,
• Green ship finance initiatives, and
• Charterer early engagement in newbuild projects.
Although there are a range of business model approaches currently applied across the industry, the wide-scale implementation of each approach has proven challenging due to the lack of incentivisation of key stakeholders, the coordination of investment and increasingly critical environmental and regulatory risks. It can therefore be concluded that incremental changes in business models are being adopted but the pace and force with which they are implemented may be insufficient to drive the required change. There is therefore a requirement for robust and adaptable new business model approaches to be developed and applied across the industry with the aim of incentivising the investment in GHG reduction technologies.

This report constitutes project deliverable D8.5, and recognises that ship GHG emissions, and likewise ship energy efficiency are influenced by many factors. Whereas the other CHEK work packages and tasks primarily address the technical influences on emissions/efficiency; this task considers the human factor; and aims to develop decision support tools that can help ship crew and operators maximise the GHG savings of their ship. D8.5 aims to address the first step in this process, which is to define a benchmarking methodology that can be used as a starting point for the development of these tools. This report describes the proposed approach to be taken to develop, implement, test and validate a methodology over the course of the next 26 months. An iterative approach based around user feedback and onboard prototype testing will be applied.

The report first considers the goals of the task; the overall concepts to be applied; and then categorises the different aspects of emissions/efficiency to be considered within the benchmarking. For each of category, some potential KPIs to be used within the methodology are then proposed. Finally, as per the project deliverable description, proposals for the testing, validation and implementation processes are described.

Underpinning the work leading to this deliverable has been a consideration of how this task can ultimately contribute to GHG emissions reductions. What aspects of GHG emissions can the crew / operator actually control? What tools do they need to be able to better reduce emissions and improve efficiency? The result is that the proposed methodology includes factors such as education and incentivisation, as they are important in influencing behaviours.

In summary, D8.6 analyses the pro's and con's of the business models identified in D8.4 and comments on the applicability of those models for the GHG reduction methods identified in the project. These analyses of current business models and new business models will help inform the project as to what changes or adaptions to these models would be necessary or could be enabled to help the roll out of the CHEK technologies on a larger scale.
The following four key business model concepts are discussed in this report and their advantages and challenges are summarised:
• Equipment-as-a-Service;
• Performance guarantees;
• Finance sharing models; and
• Packaged finance solutions.

In comparison with other CHEK work packages and tasks that deal with technical aspects, this task mainly focused on human factors therefore this deliverable aims to explore the task through human-centred approach. An interview is utilised as a key method of comprehending human factors and context. The target interviewees are relevant stakeholders including vessel crew, shore officers, and different professionals. Moreover, two ship visits have been conducted for interviews. The gathered data are analysed by affinity diagram that defines the key findings.

Finally, the report proposes new software designs with mock-ups and recommendations which are the feasible ways to display actual fuel consumption and GHG emissions. Ultimately, the suggested ideas are expected to contribute to decarbonisation.

Further interviews have been conducted with the crews of cruise ship and bulk carrier with the aim of investigating the human factors effect on the crew of the new CHEK technologies installed.

On the bulk carrier, the crew is satisfied with the operation of the rigid sails and the system is producing measurable extra thrust and emission reduction results. They have noted some issues with the control software of the system initially however this was resolved quickly.

On the cruise vessel, the system is very simple to maintain and operate but would in the future need to be connected to the vessel’s central automation system to facilitate crew workflows and also for the crew to appreciate the benefits.

To meet GHG reduction targets, onboard carbon capture and storage using current marine fuels are anticipated to be the most practical and economical solution within the given time frames. The adoption of energy-saving technologies like fuel optimisation, coatings, and slow steam by fleet owners is on the rise due to their simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and accessibility.

Despite challenges such as high costs, limited sustainable fuel availability, and regulatory requirements, there is optimism surrounding the rapid advancement of scalable and cost-effective fuel alternatives. Whilst LNG is already gaining global acceptance, hydrogen is poised to become feasible once fuel cells become economically viable. However, future solutions will heavily depend on the availability, cost-effectiveness of technologies and infrastructure.

Ports play a crucial role in decarbonising the shipping industry by providing infrastructure and incentives to support low-carbon shipping. Key infrastructure objectives include:

1. Developing port facilities for low carbon fuels, such as methanol, hydrogen, and ammonia.

2. Providing onshore power supply, reducing the reliance on diesel generators.

3. Implementing waste management and recycling systems are being emphasised to reduce emissions from berth activities.

4. Promoting the adoption of energy-efficient technologies, such as sustainable cranes, warehouses, and lighting systems.

5. Investing in renewable energy facilities at the ports to power port infrastructure and nearby vessels.

6. Establishing supply chains and infrastructure for low carbon fuels, providing incentives for companies that incorporate these fuels.

In addition, a unified port incentive scheme for zero-carbon shipping can drive improvements in port infrastructure by incentivising ships to prioritise clean fuels through discounts and preferential berthing accommodations. This initiative can encourage the adoption of low-carbon technologies, thereby reducing the sector's carbon footprint.

Countries in the Global South are at the forefront of sustainable transitions in the shipping industry and are pivotal in decarbonising the maritime sector. These nations are embracing sustainable shipping practices, attracting significant stakeholder interest, and leading the way in adopting innovative technologies such as electrofuels and alternative fuel bunkering infrastructure.

Between 2024 and 2027, a greater adoption of non-alternative fuel-related optimisation and reduction technologies are anticipated. The demand for vessels powered by fossil-based alternative fuels, which will eventually transition to synthetic (methanol, ammonia, and hydrogen) or biomass-derived equivalents for zero- or near-zero emissions, are forecasted to be quickly on the rise. This trend is exemplified by the growing interest in methanol and ammonia through the green shipping corridor initiatives starting from 2030.

However, the current state of affairs reveals a significant gap in the implementation of green technologies, systems, and infrastructure within ports. Whilst shipowners are eager to embrace sustainability, the transition cannot be achieved by a single entity. Collaborative efforts across all segments of the maritime cluster are essential to address the industry's reliance on conventional fuel-based engines and technologies, fuel availability, bunker infrastructure, and ship designs.

As of now, ports of the future are undergoing transformative changes towards smarter operations and resilient infrastructure, emphasising climate, energy efficiency, and enhanced security. This aligns with the UN Sustainable Development Goals priorities for ports, demonstrating a growing commitment to take action and make progress.

The shipping industry is currently undergoing unprecedented transformations due to changing regulations, advancements in technology, and a shift in fuel production. This has led to the decarbonisation of the industry, driven primarily by regulatory, commercial, and financial factors.

A global transition towards zero-emission shipping will be required it will involve a transformation of the shipping industry as well as port and bunkering infrastructures while certain fuels are phased out and transition will open up for new technology/fuel sectors and related supply chain.

In terms of regulations, notable developments have emerged in the past year. The European Union has adopted two new legislations, European Trading Scheme and Fuel EU, complying with reduced greenhouse gas intensity requirements. European Union’s carbon pricing initiatives can drive the adoption of alternative fuels by ship owners and operators, as they face the prospect of increased costs and penalties for failing to meet emission targets. The International Maritime Organization has also revised its greenhouse gas emissions goals, targeting net-zero emissions by 2050 with indicative checkpoints in 2030 and 2040. This approach is expected to reduce the overall life cycle of emissions associated with shipping.

However, the costs of transitioning to cleaner energy can be high, posing risks of electricity affordability to some countries. This is known as the energy trilemma, which assesses energy security, sustainability, and a fair transition to ensure environmental sustainability for all.

A smorgasbord of alternative fuel options, energy-saving technologies uptake, and optimisations to fleet and route performance will be needed to achieve net-zero emissions by 2050. However, due to limited energy density, not all fuel options have the potential to reach the deep-sea stage, highlighting the importance of technology scaling and infrastructure.

The acceleration and adoption of decarbonisation technologies are crucial in achieving these targets, particularly in the 2030s. It is expected that a timeline will be adopted by 2025, including measures such as introducing greenhouse gas intensity requirements and implementing a global carbon price or levy.

These regulatory developments, complemented by commercial and financial drivers, are shaping the future of decarbonisation in the shipping industry. Thus, aligning regulations, investing in technology, and effective policy frameworks remain critical to achieving sustainable and eco-friendly shipping practices by 2050.

Balancing the reliance on the old system while progressing towards the new one is crucial for a successful net-zero transition.

This report presents the energy savings achieved when the international fleets use the CHEK technologies and then, to predict the emission reduction from shipping industry in the years of 2030, 2040 and 2050.

This report demonstrates how important CHEK is in promoting eco-friendly practices in the industry. CHEK has the potential to make a big difference by lowering emissions and saving money on ship operations, especially as the cost of traditional marine fuels goes up. As the industry moves towards cleaner fuel options, CHEK's focus on using green technologies and alternative fuels is crucial in leading the way towards a more environmentally responsible and cost-effective maritime sector.

Total cost of alternative fuels and CO2 for CHEK ships with and without CHEK technologies are estimated for 2030, 2040 and 2050. It is expected that sustainable fuels will be more expensive in the future. Therefore, CHEK technologies will most probably be desirable to all industry stakeholders looking to invest in new technologies, as they have the potential to reduce operational expenditure costs over the service life cycle. If a higher proportion of "CHEK fuel" is utilised in the future, the maritime industry is likely to experience lower costs for alternative fuels as a result of reduced GHG costs.

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